Appalachia, Big Creek, Charleston, coal, Daisy, Daisy Coal Company, David Crockett, Gordon Lilly, H.J. Markham, history, Huntington, James B. Toney, Logan Banner, Logan County, Peter M. Toney, pneumonia, Stone Branch, W.H. McKinney, West Virginia
An unknown correspondent from Big Creek in Logan County, West Virginia, offered the following items, which the Logan Banner printed on February 17, 1922:
In the last few days Daisy Coal mines started up after being shut down for about four months.
Mr. West, mining engineer of Charleston, has been in Big Creek looking after business matters the last few days.
Mr. P.M. Toney, member of the County Court, has been to Charleston and other places pertaining to business matters for the last few days.
Mrs. J.B. Toney and family of Huntington have been visiting relatives in Big Creek for several days.
Mr. and Mrs. H.J. Markham have been visiting relatives here for the last few days.
There has been a lot of sickness here in the last two weeks and a number of cases of pneumonia.
Mr. and Mrs. W.H. McKinney, who have been visiting relatives, have gone to house keeping and decided to stay here. Mr. McKinney is employed as electrician for the Daisy Coal Co.
A new baby was born to Mr. and Mrs. Millard Sanders.
Mr. and Mrs. J.W. Stone of Peach Creek are visiting Mr. Stone’s mother at Big Creek.
A bad cough and cold is interfering with Uncle Gord Lilly’s matrimonial arrangements as announced by him. But Uncle Gord tells us that this matter will be attended to promptly.
Dr. Crockett has been away attending to business matters in Charleston.
A great protracted meeting has been going on at Stone Branch for the past two weeks. There were sixteen conversions. A number will be baptized Sunday.
Appalachia, Big Sandy River, C&O Railroad, coal, Consolidation Coal Company, Cumberland Mountains, Devil John Wright, Devil Judd Tolliver, Hazard Herald, history, James A Garfield, Jenkins, John Fox Jr., John W. Wright, Kentucky, Kentucky River, Letcher County, Little Elkhorn Creek, Little Shepherd Amphitheatre, Logan Banner, Nick Dann, photos, Pound Gap, Rocky Branch, Shelby, The Trail of the Lonesome Pine, Virginia, West Virginia
Here is a bit of history for Jenkins, Kentucky, based on a newspaper account provided in 1928:
Nestling in the valley of the Little Elkhorn, within “a stone’s throw” of the famous Pound Gap, is Jenkins, one of the few great mining towns of the world. The term “mining camp” cannot rightly be used when speaking of Jenkins, because it is not a “camp” in any sense of the word, but rather a city built by the great Consolidation Coal Company for the accommodation of its thousands of employees.
Never was a city planned more carefully, says the Hazard (Ky.) Herald. The men in charge of the construction work were chosen from the top of their respective professions, and the building of the plant was carried out to a plan with the health, safety, education, sanitation, convenience and enjoyment of life by the miners, as its chief object cost was a very secondary consideration.
Twenty years ago this spot was a wild mountain farm, owned by that famous mountaineer, John W. Wright. His home, a hewn log affair, stood near where the Methodist church has since been erected. For miles in every direction the unbroken forest swept away over hill and down valley, some of which had slept undisturbed since the beginning of time.
The mountaineers, on their seldom made visits to this wild region, would look up at the rugged mountains, like giant sentinels guarding the gates of another world, and wonder, what good could ever come of such a land. At night, the few settlers were lulled to sleep by the hoot owl’s call and awakened in the morning by the yelp of the fox.
Then one day news spread over the hills that Wright had disposed of his lands and that a great town was about to be built by some men from “away off yonder.” Surveying parties were camped on the Kentucky river, and along Elkhorn. Railroads were pushing into the hills from the east and west. Farmers, on their way to mill or meeting, would stop and ask questions of the engineers, learn all they could of the town that “they had heard was going to be” and then hurry home to toll the news to their neighbors, adding to the story until it becomes a fanciful fairy tale.
The roars of explosives soon were heard for many miles, children at first would run screaming to their mother [illegible line] skirts asking to be told what it was they had heard “away over yonder,” while old women smoked their pipes and wondered if “Garfield was coming up the Sandy again.”
Coming into wild, rugged country like the head of Elkhorn, and laying off and building a city was a feat worthy of the greatest engineering skill, and that was the sort employed by the Consolidation Company.
The nearest railroad was still miles away. Everything needed in construction must be freighted across the Cumberlands, over roads almost impassable by wagon. For 12 months preparation for this gigantic plant went on before the actual construction work began. Roads were graded across the mountain by Pound Gap and a lumbering concern was induced to build their narrow gauge railroad from Glomorgan to Rocky Branch, leaving only about five miles that supplies must be transported by wagon freight. The Pound Gap country was a beehive of activity. Freighters were so numerous on the road that it took the best part of a day to make the trip from Jenkins to Rocky Branch and return. Every few yards the driver would be forced to turn out so that another could pass.
Hundreds of carpenters, masons and helpers were at work building houses. The houses they constructed were of a type foreign to the coal fields across the mountains in Virginia. A giant power plant was built, the water of Elkhorn were harnesses to create the power to run the greatest mining plant in the south. The dam built across the stream has formed one of the most beautiful lakes in America, it has been stocked with fish and lined with row boats for the recreation of the coal miners and their families.
Every home was built for convenience and comfort. Sanitation was provided and each house was wired for electricity. Word went out into the mining camps close by in Virginia that the “Jenkins company” would not tolerate kerosene lamps in their houses and required that their employees use electricity for illumination. These “other camps” were forced to remodel their plants in keeping with the pattern on which the great Consolidation plant was built, until today, the old order has been replaced with the new throughout Virginia, West Virginia and Kentucky: thanks to the lead of the Consolidation Coal Company.
Jenkins is well lighted; has an excellent water system; fire department and paved streets in the business section. Many beautiful homes line the handsome drive, skirting the lake. These, unlike the ordinary mining town houses, are set well back from the driveway in park like lawns, well shaded with grand old oaks and other native trees.
Some of the most substantial business buildings to be found in the Cumberland region are here in Jenkins. Among these are the recreation building, housing a drug store, hotel, post office, Western Union office, barber shop, pool room, printing office, and drink stand. The First national Bank building is the most beautiful building in Letcher county; vine-clad with clinging ivy gives it the appearance of having grown there.
The most widely known business institutions in Jenkins are the Consolidation Coal Company store, the First National bank, the Jenkins Steam Laundry, the Modern Pressing Shop, Nick Dann’s Auto Sales and Repair Shop, and the numerous businesses housed under the roof of the mammoth recreation building. The town is on the Kentucky state highway and is served by the C. & O. railroad system from Shelby junction.
Source: Logan (WV) Banner, 2 October 1928.
Appalachia, Aracoma, Big Creek, Boone County, Brooke McNeely, Camp Chase, Chapmanville District, Charles Williams, civil war, Claude Ellis, coal, Confederate Army, crime, Dave Kinser, Democratic Party, Douglas Kinser, Elbert Kinser, Ethel, Fort Branch, French River, genealogy, ginseng, Harts Creek, Hetzel, history, J. Green McNeely, Jake Kinser, Jane Mullins, Jefferson Davis, Jim Aldridge, John Carter, John Kinser, Logan, Logan Banner, Logan County, logging, Malinda Kinser, Malinda Newman, Mary Ann Ellis, Mud Fork, Otis Kinser, rafting, Scott Ellis, Smyth County, Stonewall Jackson, timbering, tobacco, Virginia, Washington Township, West Virginia, Wythe County
Appalachia, Aracoma, Barnabus, Barnabus Curry, Boling Baker, Buffalo Creek, Cham, Chapmanville, Chauncey, Chauncey Browning, coal, Crystal Block, Curry, D.E. Hue, Dehue, Dingess Run, Edward O'Toole, Gilbert Creek, Guyandotte River, history, Horse Pen Mountain, Huff Creek, Island Creek, Jim Gilbert, Litz-Smith Coal Company, Logan Banner, Logan County, Main Island Creek Coal Company, Mallory, Micco, Mountain View Inn, Native American History, Native Americans, Omar, Omar Cole, Peter Huff, Rum Creek, Sarah Ann, Sarah Ann O'Toole, Stirrat, Twisted Gun Lick, West Virginia, William Dingess, William S. Madison
From the Logan Banner of Logan, WV, comes this bit of history about Logan County place names:
Naming of Logan County Towns and Creeks Related By Logan Banner Reporter
While the first white settlers who entered the county near the middle of the 18th century had to have names for the creeks and runs in order to locate their homes, the children of these first settlers had to have names for each large settlement in order to have their mail delivered to them. Both groups used interesting methods of naming the landmarks.
Early Indian fighters who had contact with Boling Baker and his horse-thieving found little trouble naming the mountain which rises behind Mountain View Inn at the head of Island Creek. Because of the renegade’s custom of using one of the steep hollows for a corral, Captain William S. Madison, an early pioneer, named the mountain Horse Pen. Likewise, Gilbert Creek was named for Jim Gilbert, an Indian scout, who was killed in an Indian skirmish on that tributary of the Guyandotte. Near the place where he was killed there is an old salt lick which is named “Twisted Gun Lick.” The story is told that Gilbert, before he died, hit his gun barrel against a tree to keep the Indians from using it on his comrades. His friends, coming to the lick several hours later, found Gilbert scalped and the twisted firearm lying nearby.
Huff Creek was similarly named for a Peter Huff, whose scouting party was ambushed by a roving band of redskins and Huff was killed in the ensuing battle. They buried Huff on the banks of the creek near the present town of Mallory.
Buffalo Creek, however, received its name in an entirely different manner. The first settlers who hunted in the valley of the Guyandotte found buffalo herds so plentiful on this creek that they called it Buffalo Creek.
Dingess Run was named for a pioneer family of Dingesses which settled in its broad bottoms. William Dingess was the patriarchal head of the family and his children named the run in memory of him.
Island Creek received its name from the Indians who were awed by the beauty of a large creek flowing into the Guyandotte with such force as to cut an entirely separate bed, thus forming an island in the middle of the river. Old timers say that in the early days of the county Island Creek entered the Guyan river at the upper limits of Aracoma. Only during flood time did the creek meet the river at its present point.
As for the towns which have sprung up in the county since coal became king, many were named for prominent people living in them at one time or another or for pioneer families who lived in the towns when the coal companies first came in.
A unique method was used, however, in naming Micco. It received its name from the first letters of the Main Island Creek Coal Co., which formerly operated the mines there.
Omar was named for Omar Cole who was closely associated with the development of the town. The Cole family held, and still holds, extensive mining leases in the vicinity of that mining town.
Sarah Ann acquired its name from the wife of Colonel Edward O’Toole, who was manager of the coal company when the town applied to the government for a post office. The town is generally known as Crystal Block.
Barnabus received its name from Barnabus Curry, a pioneer settler whose home was near the town.
Stirrat was named for Colonel Stirrat, who was manager of the Main Island Creek Coal Company at one time.
Chauncey was named for Chauncey Browning, well-known son of a pioneer family who owned much of the land near that town. For many years the town of Chauncey was not large enough to be made a post office, but after the Litz-Smith Coal Company opened its mines there the town grew to proportions large enough to warrant a post office.
Dehue was given its name in honor of D.E. Hue, the first superintendent who operated the mines there.
Cham, a small place about two and one-half miles above Dehue, got its name from a Chambers family who lived on Rum Creek.
Chapmanville was named for the Chapmans, Curry for the Curry family and Aracoma for the famous Indian princess.
Source: Logan (WV) Banner, 25 March 1937
Appalachia, coal, Franklin D. Roosevelt, free trade, history, John D. Battle, Logan Banner, Logan County, National Coal Association, protectionism, Reciprocal Trade Agreement, tariffs, U.S. Congress, United Mine Workers of America, United States, Venezuela, West Virginia, White House
An Editorial: Blow at Coal Industry
We are all dependent upon the coal industry for a livelihood. Therefore anything that is injurious to the coal industry is of vital interest to us—whether we are in the newspaper business, a merchant, a clerk in a store, coal miner—or whatnot. It is a well known fact that for years, under the Roosevelt administration, reciprocal trade agreements with other countries have been striking at the very heart of the coal industry. We are all aware, too, that because of these trade agreements and because of regulatory measures, the demand for coal has been considerable less. In other words, to make a long story short, coal has been replaced to a large extent by cheap imported oils and natural gas. There was a time when high protective tariffs kept the cheap imported oils out of the United States—much to the benefit of the coal industry.
That is why it is of particular interest to refer to a recent Reciprocal Trade Agreement made with Venezuela which permits cheap imported oil to flow freely into the United States to replace coal as a fuel. John D. Battle, executive secretary of the National Coal Association, recently made some pertinent comment in regard to this agreement, that should be carefully diagnosed by all those engaged in and dependent upon the coal industry for a living. Said Mr. Battle: “The reciprocal trade agreement with Venezuela which the state department has announced is certain to increase the pressure upon Congress to terminate the entire trade treaty authorization. The Venezuela Agreement caps the climax of a tariff reduction policy which largely ignores the needs and concerns of American industry and American labor. This agreement cuts in half the existing excise tax on oil imports, notwithstanding the strong and unanimous opposition which had been registered with the state department by coal operators from coast to coast, both bituminous and anthracite, and by the United Mine Workers and by the spokesmen for the independent oil producers. Congress imposed a half-cent per gallon excise tax on oil imports in 1932 for the protection of our own fuels in our own markets. This tax so far failed to afford the needed protection that bills are now pending to increase the excise tax to 3 cents per gallon. The Venezuela Agreement not only reduces the excise tax to one-quarter cent per gallon, but ties the hands of Congress and prevents any increase in this tax so long as this trade agreement remains in force. The five per cent quota which the treaty drafters have inserted as a sugar coating is without practical effect and is a palpable subterfuge. The present taxable imports of crude and fuel oil, which come principally from Venezuela, large as they are, are nevertheless considerably below this five per cent quota limit. That means that as a result of the Venezuela Agreement oil imports may largely increase at the expense of United States coal, and at a time when the oil wells of many United States producers are shut in for want of markets. Existing oil imports represent a displacement of some ten to twelve million tons of bituminous coal annually, which takes from twelve to fifteen million dollars out of the pay envelopes of mine labor and takes more than twenty million dollars away from the railroads. Our industry will not suffer this blow in silence. We shall renew our protests to the state department and to the White House to make the record clear, and we shall carry this fight to Congress with the expectation that Congress will heed the protest and be moved to put a stop to this policy of delegating to the executive branch of the government law-making and treaty-making functions, which policy has in practice proved so destructive.”
Source: Logan (WV) Banner, 14 November 1939
Appalachia, coal, Coal River, deputy sheriff, Edgar Combs, history, James Jeffrey, Kanawha County, Logan, Logan County, Mine Wars, Prohibition Officer, Sallie Chambers, United Mine Workers of America, West Virginia
DEPOSITION OF JAMES JEFFREY
STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA
STATE OF WEST VIRGINIA, KANAWHA COUNTY, as:
James Jeffrey, Who, being first duly sworn by me says that he now lives at Jeffrey, Boone County, West Virginia, and has lived in that section of the country all of his life; that he has been connected with the Prohibition Department of the State as a Prohibition Officer, and at the present time is a Coal Miner by occupation; that he is familiar with what is known as the Mine Guard System in Logan County under which large numbers of Deputy Sheriffs are employed and paid by the Coal Companies of that County; that the principal purpose of employing such Deputy Sheriffs is to prevent the Coal Miners from joining the United Mine Workers of America; that he knows the general reputation of the said deputy Sheriffs as to their attitudes toward the members of said Union; that the said Deputies have a long record for assaults upon members of the United Mine Workers that there is a feeling of deep hostility and enmity between the said Deputies and the members of said Union; that practically the whole of Logan County excepting only the small position lying along Coal River is non-union and this is due wholy to the war made upon the said Union by the deputy sheriffs; that it is dangerous for any member of the said union to remain in said County, by reason of the said Deputies; that Affiant knows that the members of said union are afraid to go to Logan Court House, as a witness and there testify fully and freely in any matter that might arise the hostility of the said deputies or the company by which they are employed and the conduct of the said deputies toward the employees of the said Union primarily caused the Armed March of the miners in 1921; that by reason of the above facts this affiant knows that it would be impossible for the defendant to get a fair and impartial trial in the said County of Logan.
Taken, sworn and subscribed by me on the 29th day of September 1923.
Sallie Starr Chambers
Notary Public, Kanawha County, West Virginia
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