For more information about John R. Browning, follow this link: https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9BSZ-9N3H?i=46&cc=1473181
39th Kentucky Infantry, African-Americans, Ann Dils, Appalachia, Basil Hatfield, cemeteries, civil war, Dils Cemetery, genealogy, Hatfield-McCoy Feud, history, John Dils Jr., Kentucky, Martha Hatfield, Martha McCoy, National Register off Historic Places, photos, Pike County, Pikeville, Randolph McCoy, Roseanna McCoy, Sam McCoy, Sarah McCoy, slavery, Union Army
16th Infantry, 4th Infantry, African-Americans, Albert Adams, Albert Jeffrey, Alfred Prichard, Allen Bryant, Allen Tabor, American Legion, Appalachia, Argonne Woods, Arle J. Price, Armistice Day, Bee Stewart, Ben H. Gosney, Ben Maynard, Bert Rayborn, Bill Manville, Bird Dingess, Burnie G. Sanson, Burton W. Gore, Calvin Coolidge, Carl Ellis, Charles Brewster, Charles Burton Litten, Charlie M. Munsey, Charlie Warcovies, Clarence Bartram, Clarence Smith, Clarence W. Parkins, Clifton Manns, Clyde Jeffrey, Coal Branch, Crooked Creek Cemetery, Dan Craft, David Hensley, Dennie Robertson, Denver Mullins, Doc Workman, Earl Hager, East End, Edward Gunther, Elbert Billups, Elbert Carter, Elisha Ball, Ella Craddock, Elmer Cook, Everett Blankenship, Finne Walter Pugh, Floyd Chambers, Floyd Johnson, Floyd W. Clay, France, Frank Bell, Frank C. Reynolds, Frank C. Wilcoxen, Frank Ferrell, Frank J. Bell, Frank Ward, Fred E. Hahne, genealogy, George E. Covey, George F. Breeden, George Luty, George Meadows, Greenway Christian, Guy T. Conley, Harold Thompson, Haskell Phillips, Henan Jarrell, Henry H. Runyon, Herbert L. McKinney, Hill Brewster, Hirse C. Brown, history, Hoboken, Homer Hobbs, Homer Vance, James Chapin, James E. Peters, James G. Cyrus, James Jackson, James L. Robinson, James Linford Brown, James M. Ellis, Jasper Wooten, Jennings Robinson, Jim F. Crawford, Joe Hardy, John A. Shepherd, John B. McNeely, John B. Wilkinson, John H. Crittenden, John H. Harris, John L. Blankenship, John L. Ward, John Martin, John Roberts, John Smith, Johnie Johnson, Joseph White, Keefer Jennings Whitman, Lawrence Marcuzzi, Lee Cox, Lee Shelton, Levi J. Vance, Logan, Logan Banner, Logan County, Lovel H. Aldredge, Luther Lacy, Mack Smith, Meddie Graley, Mike Tarka, Ned Johnson, Newton Cook, Nick Malozzo, Noble J. Lax, Orvil Grubb, Oscar Dial, Otto Sanders, Patsy Vance, Peter White, Rector H. Elkins, Robert L. Gore, Roy Lowe, Roy Simms, Sam McNeely, Shellie Moxley, Sidney Ferrell, Spencer Mullins, Stonewall Hensley, Thomas J. Cox, Thomas P. Justice, Thomas R. Newman, Thomas Weir, Thomas Y. Davis, Tom Boring, Tom Williams, Tony Curia, Tony Ladas, Ulysses B. Vance, Walter S. Blake, West Virginia, Will Wilson, Willard Ball, William D. Maynard, William E. Hanshaw, William F. Munsey, William H. Adkins, William Harris, William O. Bailey, William R. Nowlan, Willie Allen, Willie F. Smith, World War I, Zatto Adkins
From the Logan Banner of Logan, WV, comes this story titled “Logan County Boys Killed or Wounded,” dated November 8, 1927:
Logan County Boys Killed or Wounded
Prayers in behalf of peace are suggested for Armistice Day by President Coolidge. It will likewise be proper to recall the names of those who sacrificed most in the cause of peace, who died or were wounded in the dreary days before the signing of the Armistice ended the most colossal conflict of all history. Twenty young men from Logan county were killed in action. Half that number died of wounds. Their names and the names of others who died in the service of their country a decade ago are reproduced from the official records:
Killed in Action
Floyd W. Clay
John B. McNeely
William F. Munsey
James L. Robinson
Willie F. Smith
Ulysses B. Vance
Keefer Jennings Whitman
Died of Wounds
John L. Blankenship
Noble J. Lax
William R. Nowlan
Henry H. Runyan
Died of Disease (A.E.F.)
Thomas J. Cox
Fred E. Hahne
Joe Hardy (colored)
Johnie Johnson (colored)
Levi J. Vance
Died of Disease in U.S.
William O. Bailey
James Linford Brown
Wounded in Action
William H. Adkins
Lovel H. Aldredge
Frank J. Bell
Walter S. Blake
George F. Breeden
Hirse C. Brown
Guy T. Conley
George E. Covey
Dan Craft (colored)
Jim F. Crawford
John H. Crittenden
James G. Cyrus
Thomas Y. Davis
Rector H. Elkins
James M. Ellis
Robert L. Gore
Burton W. Gore
Ben H. Gosney
William E. Hanshaw
John H. Harris
William Harris (colored)
James Jackson (colored)
Thomas P. Justice
Charles Burton Litten
Herbert L. McKinney
William D. Maynard
Charlie M. Munsey
Thomas R. Newman
Clarence W. Parkins
James E. Peters
Arle J. Price
Finne Walter Pugh
Frank C. Reynolds
Burnie G. Sanson
John A. Shepherd
John Smith (colored)
Frank Ward (colored)
John L. Ward
John B. Wilkinson
Frank C. Wilcoxen
Will Wilson (colored)
It seems likely there are errors of spelling in the foregoing list, and perhaps some names have been omitted from the roster from which this list was copied. Desiring a complete and perfect list The Banner will appreciate having its attention called to any omissions or misspellings.
African-Americans, Appalachia, Aracoma High School, Bruce H. Hull, education, history, Logan, Logan Banner, Logan County, Logan High School, North Central Association of Secondary Schools, teachers, West Virginia
From the Logan Banner of Logan, WV, comes this interesting item about Aracoma High School dated September 2, 1927:
ARACOMA HIGH OPENS SEPT. 5th
Principal Hull Announces Some New Features Since Last Term, Adding To the Facilities
Plans are about completed for the opening of the Aracoma high school for the coming year. The principal, Mr. Bruce H. Hull, states that an annex will be fitted up for use this year giving an additional room for high school purposes. This annex will be equipped as a science laboratory. Equipment, including special furniture, has already been ordered for this department and is expected to be in place for the beginning of the year. The additional room and added facilities thus provided should enable the high school to be classified as second class.
Mr. Hull further stated that the board of education will furnish transportation to all students living in the district who wish to attend the high school up to and including the eleventh grade. Parents are urged by him to have their boys and girls enter school on the first day for purpose of classification.
The faculty for the school will be composed of five members holding baccalaureate degrees from standard and approved colleges and two members who are graduates of the standard normal course. It will be recalled that when Mr. Hull came to Logan two years ago there was no accredited senior high school for Negroes, but now plans have been completed for a new building which the board expects to complete before the end of the present term. The completion of this unit in the system of education together with the entrance of the Logan high school into the North Central Association of Secondary Schools will be tangible evidence of the progress of Logan county in the field of education.
Alvin York, Appalachia, Arthur Davenport, Babe Ruth, Banastre Tarleton, Battle of Cowpens, Battle of King's Mountain, Charles Darwin, Charleston, Charleston Daily Mail, Charlie Chaplin, Chicago, culture, Jack Dempsey, Kentucky, Logan, Logan Banner, R.H. Martin, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia
From the Logan Banner of Logan, WV, dated August 5, 1927, comes this editorial about the “mountain folk” of Appalachia, printed in response to a piece in Collier’s:
Observations By R.H. Martin, Editor of Charleston Mail, In Rejoinder to Collier’s Article
Some West Virginia newspapers are both indignant and aroused over an article printed in Collier’s recently under the name of Arthur Davenport and having for its theme the sad and deplorable conditions of the mountain dwellers in Southern Appalachia. The general tenor of the article can be fairly judged by the introductory synopsis:
We Americans are fond of tilting our noses and giving the rest of the world the superior eye.
Anybody going about in that fashion is pretty sure to overlook an unpolished heel or a rip in the clothing where it makes others laugh most.
Here is the story of the unpolished heel. Here are Americans of nearly two hundred years’ breeding who never heard the names Roosevelt, Wilson, Ford, Babe Ruth, Charlie Chaplin; who never saw a —
But never mind. Read and cease marveling for a few moments that the Chinese can be dedraggled, the Hottentot so naked, the mukhik so ignorant and the Hindu so impoverished. Here are all of these calamities within a few hours train ride from our own golden Capitol.
If the conditions are as Mr. Davenport has painted them, then it would appear to be a case where pity and help were needed rather than sneers and laughter. In fact, Mr. Davenport in the introduction, or Collier’s editor who may have written it, gives some indications of “nose-tilting” that might provoke a rather loud guffaw from some unlettered mountaineer whose forbears were possibly among, and certainly of the same type, of those mountaineers who won the battles of the Cowpens and King’s Mountain, which victories some historians consider the turning point in the American revolution. They were probably of the same type as that Col. Washington, who, although he could not make a letter, yet left the mark of his sword on a certain Col. Tarleton.
It may be true–we shall not attempt to deny it–that there are mountaineers who never heard of Babe Ruth. We have not the slightest desire to detract one iota from all laurels due to the famous batsman, but, like most mountaineers, probably we should, if it simmered down to that, prefer Sergeant York as our hero to the idol of the howling grandstand that throws pop-bottles at umpires.
Nor shall we repine if it is true that some of these mountaineers never heard of Charlie Chaplin. We fail to see where knowing him as most Americans know him would be intellectually or otherwise uplifting. Perhaps, such mountaineers, as have missed long-distance acquaintance of either of these gentlemen just mentioned have not lost so much after all. As for other names mentioned there may be in the deepest mountain recesses persons who have not heard of them. If Mr. Davenport knows of his own personal knowledge of such cases, his statement stands.
There are mountain folk in the great ranges of Southern Appalachia who have been cut off from this modern civilization of ours that produces bandits in Gotham and gunmen in Chicago, the nauseous scandals of Hollywood, the commercial orgies of Dempsey and Sharkey, and other highly moral and refining manifestations of the literates, and their ignorance of the outside world may be large. But as to whether a more intimate contact with this outside world which we boastfully call civilized would improve the mountaineer or not, would, it seems to us, depend a good deal upon that part of it with which he came in contact.
Mountaineers in the innermost recesses of the elevations of the elevations are poor as well as deficient in general knowledge. We admit as much. Their wants are few, and they are able to get along with what to satisfy their forefathers who at infinite toil conquered the wilderness and blazed the paths of those whose “culture” takes on “nose-tilting” sneering and laughing. Perhaps Mr. Davenport might get a new insight into real values if he should read what Bobbie Burns wrote about “honest poverty.”
Illiteracy still exceeds 90 percent in the mountains of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina, which states contribute to the four million of which I write. Poverty of a sort unbelievable in the cities is so commonplace as not to be impressive: the amount of money passing through the hands of the old mountaineer in any year is often less than eight dollars.
The term, “mountains of Kentucky, West Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina” is ambiguous. Practically all West Virginia is mountainous, or semi-mountainous. Taking the states named as a whole the percentage of illiteracy among native-born whites is as follows: Kentucky, 7.3; North Carolina, 8.2; Virginia, 6.1; West Virginia, 4.8; Tennessee, 7.4. These figures are slightly increased by adding to them foreign illiterates and illiterates among the negro population. The latter two elements present special problems that are being gradually worked out and the percentages from now on will rapidly diminish. To say therefore, that mountain folk are 90 percent illiterate, one would have to restrict the term “mountain folk” to a very small proportion of the population.
But Mr. Davenport seems to apply his percentage to the “four million of which I write.” It possibly may be that if Mr. Davenport has that same passion for facts as animated Charles Darwin, and is as careful in testing his data, he will revise his figures.
The entire story is exaggerated and weird; but it is nothing to worry about. The people of the states named know the causes and the difficulties and are remedying the situation as rapidly as possible. Fastidious refinement may halt at the lofty mountain ranges and at the mouth of the deep and dark defiles, but from these same mountain folk have come some of the strongest type of Americans despite educational handicaps. When we think of Sergeant York and his folk, we do not despair of the mountain folk nor depreciate their sturdy virtues. We neither feel like sneering nor laughing. And we hope modern “culture” and “civilization” has the good breeding not to tilt the nose at supposed inferiors who may in some essentials actually be superiors.
For more about Collier’s, follow this link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collier%27s
American Revolution, Appalachia, Christiansburg, genealogy, Henry Farley, history, John Farley, John Kirk, Judith Farley, Logan County, Montgomery County, slavery, Thomas Farley, Virginia, West Virginia
During a recent visit to the Montgomery County Courthouse in Christiansburg, Virginia, I viewed the Last Will and Testament of my great-great-great-great-great-great-grandfather Thomas Farley (c.1730-1796). Thomas was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War.
In the Name of God Amen
I Thomas Farley of the County of Montgomery and State of Virginia being sick in Body but of a good and sound memory calling to mind the uncertain estate of this Temporary(?) life and knowing that all flesh must yield to death when it shall pleas God to call. I commit my soul to almighty God that give it and my Body to be buryed as my Friends Shall See cause. In the first place I desire as much of my Estate may be sold as shall pay all my Just debts, Such things as my Dear wife shall think fit. Secondly I give and bequeath to my Dear wife three Negros and all my Pertional estate to dispose of as she Shall See fit and Likewise all Bonds Notes and demands. In the third place I give and Bequeath unto my Dear Sons Such Lands and I have heretofore given them agreeable to Such lines as I have directed and this I believe to be my Last Will and Testament this thirty first day of May one thousand seven hundred and ninety six.
Signed and Sealed
In the presence
?Winney Thomp (her mark)?
I also leave Gordon Cloyd and John Kirk my true(?) Friend as Executors
NOTE: Henry Farley, pioneer settler of Logan County, WV, is the son of Thomas Farley.
African-Americans, Appalachia, Appalachian Power Company, Aracoma High School, Blair, board of education, Buskirk & Kayser, Coal Branch, Coal River, E.F. Scaggs, education, Elaine Ferguson, Georgia Miller, history, Island Creek Bridge, J.F. May, J.W. Beckett, K.F. Deskins, L.E. Farnsworth, Logan, Logan Banner, Logan County, Logan High School, Lois Simmons, Omar Colored School, Opperman, R.H. May, W.H. Houston, West Virginia, White & Browning Building
In 1927, the Logan County Board of Education discussed construction of a new high school building for the county’s black pupils. At this time, Republicans held many county offices by narrow majorities.
Board of Education Favorable to Providing New Building for Colored Pupils.
NEEDS OF BLAIR POINTED OUT
Colored Teachers Hired For Omar
–Board Meets Again Friday–
That negotiations for the purchase of a site for a centralized colored high school for Logan district have been under way was disclosed at the regular monthly meeting of the Logan district board of education last Saturday. At an adjourned meeting to be held Friday of this week a further step toward this end may be taken.
The site under consideration is a two-acre tract fronting on the north shore of Island creek in Coal Branch. It lies between Coal Branch (stream) and the Island Creek bridge and roadway, and to which the only access at this time is through the alley along side and back of Buskirk & Kayser’s store. The upper half of it is now a weed patch; the other half is under cultivation.
This tract belongs to K.F. Deskins and has been priced to the board at $21,000. The ground is low and often overflows, but the board has been advised that the Appalachian Power Company will fill it with its own refuse up to the level of the road at no cost to the purchaser. Thus it would be made virtually flood proof.
Saturday’s meeting was attended by all three members, President J.F. May, Dr. L.E. Farnsworth and J.W. Beckett. Though convinced the price is high, Dr. May and Dr. Farnsworth said, everything considered, they believed the tract to be the most suitable for the purpose that could be found; and they further made it clear that in their opinion a new high school for the colored pupils is imperative and should be made available just as soon as possible. While admitting there are many things that should and must be done, they doubt whether any other contemplated improvement is more urgent than this.
The Aracoma high school building, a rickety, wholly unsuitable two-story frame, is characterized as a fire-box that must be abandoned. This property would be sold, if the other is bought, it is said, but the proceeds of the sale would doubtless be negligible compared to the price of the Dingess tract.
The Dingess tract is believed to be ideally located with reference to the colored population of the district. Besides, it is easily accessible from various directions and is ample in dimensions; and if necessary, one or more lots could be sold, though nothing of that sort is now contemplated.
Just how this proposed purchase and the proposed new wing for the Logan high school are to be financed was not explained at Saturday’s meeting. But there were many other matters demanding attention.
Conditions of school buildings and equipment at Blair and other Coal River points were discussed at length and definite action will be taken soon, it was promised. The two Richardson brothers, coal operators at Opperman, took a hand in these discussions and urged a program of improvements. Blasting done by road contractors nearly wrecked the Blair school building a good while ago.
The following teachers were hired for the Omar colored school: W.H. Houston, principal; Mrs. Georgia Miller, Mrs. Lois Simmons, Mrs. Elaine Ferguson, Mrs. W.H. Houston. The last three are new ones.
Prof. Houston was given a contract to paint some parts of the building for 10 cents a yard, the board to furnish the paint. He was told he could not make wages at that price but said he did not care about that, adding that he wanted the work done and would do it right or would not expect to receive even the low contract price for his work.
Many bills, many of them small and incurred by the old regime, were ordered paid. Among these was one for $40 for two months rent for an office in the White & Browning building for E.F. Scaggs. That contract was declared canceled.
R.H. May was appointed janitor of the Logan high school building, effective August 1.
Source: Logan (WV) Banner, 26 July 1927.
African-Americans, Appalachia, coal, Con Chafin, crime, Democratic Party, deputy sheriff, Don Chafin, E.T. England, guitar, Guyandotte River, Herald-Dispatch, history, Huntington, Ira P. Hager, John B. Wilkinson, Ku Klux Klan, lawyers, Logan, Logan Banner, Logan County, mine guards, O.J. Deegan, politics, prosecuting attorney, Republican Party, sheriff, timbering, W.C. Lawrence Jr., West Virginia
From the Herald-Dispatch of Huntington, WV, comes this story printed by the Logan Banner of Logan, WV, dated October 30, 1914:
Republican Voters Driven from Co. by Gunmen
Deputy Sheriffs, Acting as Mine Guards, Are the Law and Enforcement Thereof.
Many Believe Martial Law Will be Sequel to Rule of Thugs.
Democratic schemes for the intimidation of Republican voters, for the prevention of a Republican victory in the state next Tuesday, whether by fair means or foul, have reached their climax in Logan county. If there is a place in West Virginia where lawlessness has succeeded law and order, where the persons chosen to enforce the law have initiated a system of rule by force and intimidation, a rule by force of clubs and pistols, a rule by thugs and gunmen, that place is Logan county.
A thorough investigation of conditions in Logan county today proves that the Ku Klux Klan in the south were mere pikers. There are men in Logan county who could beat them blindfolded.
The man, woman or child who would enjoy life–aye, who are willing to accept life or pass through Logan county, must be careful not to cross the paths of Sheriff Don Chafin and his force of about two hundred armed deputies.
And it can be truthfully said that the paths of these men extend to every nook and corner of the county. And several newly-made graves along the banks of the Guyandotte river and its tributaries shows who is the law and the enforcement thereof.
Several men have been shot, two negroes fatally, others have been clubbed and driven out of the county, women and children have been forced to flee clad only in their night-clothes, upon order of the Chafin deputies.
And all this because some Republicans desired to be registered in order that they might cast their votes for the Republican candidates next Tuesday.
Logan county is about to throw off the yoke of Democracy. The coal and lumber industries are rapidly being developed, and, as is always the case in progressive communities, the Republicans are making large gains.
If the voters of Logan county are allowed to cast their ballots as they desire, and those ballots are counted as cast, the Republican candidates will be elected.
If the conspiracy which has been formed by and in the interest of the Democrats is allowed to be carried out, the Democrats will continue in control of the county, the enforcement of law will be a mere joke and there will be probably a score added to the newly made graves along Old Guyan after next Tuesday.
Opinions vary as to what the outcome will be. Some believe that only martial law will prove a solution. Others are of the opinion that conditions will grow gradually worse and that the enforcement of law and order in Logan county will be a subject for investigation by the next legislature which convenes in January. Most certainly, if the threats of the Democrats are carried out, the Republicans are driven from the polls next Tuesday, the legislature will be asked to make a sweeping investigation and their findings will reveal conditions incredible in a civilized state.
Don Chafin is high sheriff of Logan county. His cousin, Con Chafin is prosecuting attorney. All the county officials are Democrats. Circuit Judge Wilkinson is a Democrat, though a man who wants the law enforced.
Sheriff Chafin, it is estimated, has about two hundred deputies. When he was elected, a part of his platform was that he would drive out the Baldwin mine guards from Logan county. No Baldwin men are known to be in this county now but these deputy sheriffs are known as mine guards. All of them are supposed to be armed with pistols, black-jacks and the usual weapons of gunmen. But few of them are licensed to carry such weapons and there is no trouble to find evidence that they have these weapons in violation of the law. Some of them are known to be ex-convicts and as such would not be licensed to carry revolvers, etc.
They shoot, club, slug and thug at will. But they are not arrested and imprisoned. For they are the law and the enforcement thereof.
Events of the past few weeks show the effectiveness of this organization of deputies and the way in which they operate. When the registrars were on their rounds registering the voters some of the deputies were on hand and even the Democratic registrars were afraid not to obey their orders. To go back further, they were on hand at the Democratic primaries and the Democratic nominees were the men of their choice and of that of their chief.
The Democratic registrars refused to register many Republicans, especially among the colored voters. When the county commissioners met to canvass the registration, four Republican lawyers State Senator E.T. England, Ira P. Hager, W.C. Lawrence, Jr., and O.J. Deegan, the latter being Republican county chairman, took the lead to see that Republicans entitled to vote were registered. One hundred colored voters were brought into Logan for examination and registration.
Threats have been made by deputies against the journeying of negroes to the court house, there to demand their rights, and the republican leaders realized there was danger.
The work before the county court was slow, as the democratic leaders challenged every step of the republicans. But eleven men were passed upon the first day, five of whom were registered, six turned down. That night the apparent cause for delay came. A colored family lived at Monitor, a mile from the court house. It was supposed that some of the negroes awaiting registration were there. This gave the conspirators a chance and the gunmen got busy.
Soon after dark a band of armed men raided the house, shot out the windows, fired bullets into bodies of two colored men, beat up others and drove a woman and child into the hills without giving them time to dress. The raiders said they were looking for “strange niggers.” As the result of that raid one colored man lies in an unmarked grave on the hillside and another is likely to join him soon. No “strange niggers” were in that house.
A colored man owned a cleaning and pressing establishment within a couple of squares of the court house. His windows were demolished and his place of business next morning looked as though a German siege gun had been turned on it.
A score of colored men awaiting registration were quartered for the night in the office of Senator England, and adjoining offices. About 11:30 o’clock at night some of the negroes were awakened by noises in the hallways and a sensation of not being able to breathe. They rushed to the windows and threw them open, but met with a shower of stones from the outside.
Piled on Senator England’s desk can be seen the stones hurled with force as is shown by the scars on the walls. Some of the stones were thrown from the court house steps.
No arrests were made. A grand jury was in session and Judge Wilkinson instructed the jurors to ferret out the dastardly assault and bring the miscreants to justice. But not an indictment resulted. It is no mystery in Logan as to who committed the deed. Any citizen not afraid to talk, and they are few, will name half a dozen deputy sheriffs as being in the party.
A telephone exchange girl next door to where some of the negroes were attacked made an outcry and was told that she would not be hurt if she kept still. She knows who told her to keep quiet, but would hardly give his name, probably not if she faced a jail sentence for contempt of court. It is not safe to talk in Logan county. “Don’t mention my name,” is what they all say when discussing the outrages.
A short distance from Logan is a construction camp. A large crowd of deputies raided the camp. One negro was playing the guitar and singing. No “strange niggers” were found there, but the one negro sang his last song. He, too, lies in an unmarked grave along the banks of Old Guyan. “Resisting arrest” was the excuse given.
Such depredations naturally drove many colored voters away and they will not vote.
Though threats have been made against the life of Senator England and his followers, they are putting up a game fight. By agreement the county court was to hold a night session to get through with the registration. England was later notified that nothing further would be done that night but the work would be taken up the next day he was amazed to find the court was no longer sitting. He went before Judge Wilkinson, mandamused the county court to sit again, and got ninety-eight colored voters registered.
The democrats were beaten in that game. “What’s the difference,” said a deputy when the court reconvened. “We will get them election day.” It has been openly boasted by the democrats that in many precincts the republicans, especially the colored voters, will not be allowed at the polls next Tuesday.
The sheriff and his deputies form an organization with unlimited power. Every little town or village, every public works, has the deputies. By intimidation and force in most instances and by favors in others, these deputies can run things to suit themselves. Infractions of the law by supporters of the organization can easily be overlooked, while on the other hand, the slightest technical violation can be punished to the full extent of the law.
The high-handed way in which the Democratic county organization is running things has caused a ruction in the Democratic ranks and many of them will quietly vote the Republican ticket. Many members of the old-time militant Democracy, some of them ex-Confederate soldiers, have assured the Republican leaders that they can no longer approve the Democratic methods employed in Logan County and will record their votes against it.
Musician and Music Educator
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